Mountain Men is a memoir relating to the little known history of North Carolina’s white-tailed deer. In the late 1800s, deer were virtually extinct in the mountains of the state, the result of hunting by any means, year round, day or night, with or without dogs. ￼Shortly before the start of World War II, the State Wildlife Resourc- es Commission began stocking a few deer on some of the National Forests. The most favorable habitats were designated as protected zones, named as refuges, and assigned fulltime Refuge Managers to protect the deer. With protection from illegal hunting and free-run- ning dogs, deer soon became established and gradually spread from them to other forests. The author recalls the rough-and-tumble days when he supervised fourteen of these Refuges and the men who managed them. His de- scriptions of these men and their work provide a colorful, historic account of how he learned to respect and admire them. With today’s thriving deer herds, it’s hard to imagine a time when it was rare to see a wild deer in the North Carolina Mountains. Their flourishing existence today is the legacy of the dedicated work of these men.